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专业解

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professionalism

原由 redredpei 上載

所谓专业,绝对不是汉语语境里“某种学习或从事的职业”这么简单的意思。

一、专业

专业在英文里是Profession,请教牟森,他说日本人大前研一在《专业主义》这本书中说过,专业是一种誓约,一种承诺。

查《牛津大词典》,profession词源来自拉丁文,意思是:公开的宣言;一个人公开宣誓参加的生意或者职业(a public declaration; a business or profession that one publicly avows, n. of action f. profitUrW to profess。)

”专业“一词与宗教有关,本义有多种,分别是:

1、加入一种宗教律令的宣言、承诺或誓言 (The declaration, promise, or vow made by one entering a religious order; hence, the action of entering such an order; the fact of being professed in a religious order.)

2、还有一个意思是:任何严肃、正式的宣言、诺言或誓言(Any solemn declaration, promise, or vow.)

3、对观念、信仰、意图和行为的宣告。( The action of declaring, acknowledging, or avowing an opinion, belief, intention, practice, )

有趣的是:原来专业作为信仰的宣告,是与实践相对比的。有一个例句这样说:这样的人在行为上已经是圣徒了,即便在“专业”上不是。(1868 Freeman Norm. Conq. II. viii. 218 Such a man was already a saint in practice, if not in profession. )

4、一个人靠熟能生巧所从事或跟从的职业(The occupation which one professes to be skilled in and to follow. )。最早的三个专业是祭司,法律和医学,后来增加了军事。

5、从宽泛的意义上讲,一个人用于经常性谋生的任何职业或呼召。( In wider sense: Any calling or occupation by which a person habitually earns his living.)

6、委婉语,指娼妓业。“世界上最古老的职业”(The oldest profession)这个词就是这么来的。

二、专业化,或专业主义

professionalism

1、专业化的品质、性格、方法或行为;带着特别的专业的记号(Professional quality, character, method, or conduct; the stamp of a particular profession.)

例句:嗜血的专业主义,绝对是拿破仑士兵们的特征。(1893 Athen鎢m 14 Oct. 519/1 The bloodthirsty professionalism+[is] decidedly characteristic of the Napoleonic warrior.)

2、专业人士与业余人士在地位或行为上的区别。专业级的品味。(The position or practice of a professional as distinguished from an amateur; the class of professionals)

例句:地方才俊也许甚佳,但在正规的专业主义面前,很多情况下只能相形见绌了。(1884 Elocutionist Aug. 2/1 Local talent+may be very good, but in the majority of cases it fades before proper professionalism.)

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